Present Education System the educational theories and thoughts are developed by copying it from the West. All though we have adequate information about our historical and cultural thoughts in relation to Education System we are still in the initial stage to accept them and include in our curriculum despite their importance and comprehensiveness. In our ancient scripture the Bhagavad Gita, we notice the basic components for our educational system. We have various dimensions of educational theories and thoughts, but in this paper it deals with the definition and interpretation of the meaning of Education System that can be found in the Bhagavad Gita. The interpretation and comprehensive meaning of pure Education System laid down in the Gita can contribute and inspire the academicians, educationists and policy makers to look behind the history for searching valuable knowledge. In this study the researcher provides the basis for comparative study of educational system in the East and the West. The methodology adopted in this paper is a product of hermeneutical interpretation of a historical scripture which has been established interesting links to our cultural practices, personal experiences and feelings of the researcher. Holy book Gita is considered to be the greatest contributions of India to the World. In this paper, the researcher has attempted to find out the effect and implication of Gita for the present scenario of Education System in India.
The Bhagavad Gita is one of the most ancient religious scriptures of the world. It contains the direct message of God. Gita is a part of the Mahabharata, written by Veda Vyasa, consisted of seven hundreds verses in eighteen chapters dealing with philosophical thought and action, begins with a direct conversation between Arjuna and Lord Sri Krishna, the Supreme Divine. It contains the message of divine centered living based upon right knowledge, faith, devotion, self-surrender, detachment and dispassionate performance of tasks as opposed to the ego centered living, which is characterized by incessant striving, self-centered thinking, egoism, and suffering arising out of non-attainment of desires, or union with the undesired objects or separation from the desired objects along the path of knowledge, path of action, wisdom, renunciation of action leads to supreme bliss, discipline of meditation, wisdom with self-realization, the Supreme Imperishable, knowledge with realization, divine glory, discipline of action and its fruits, spiritual disciplines for God-realization, difference between Body and Soul/Spirit, division of the three characteristics- Supreme Spirit, Spiritual traits, the Threefold Faith, and Threefold Knowledge, Action, Joy, Duty and so on.
Bhagavad-Gita is divided into three parts. 1st to 6th chapters deal with the path of Action (Karma-yoga), the 7th to 12th chapters explain the path of Devotion (Bhakti-yoga) and the 13th to 18th chapters point out the path of Knowledge (Jnyana yoga) which establish the identity of the individual spirit with the Spiritual value of Education. Theory and practice of three disciplines which work in humaneness, tolerance, peace and harmony. Many social scientists, believe that intelligence based on mind, but the future of the nation depends on the present day students who are the leaders of tomorrow. Accordingly, it has been decided by the investigator to undertake a conceptual study of Concepts of Gita in the Present System of Education.
Rationale of the Study
Very few researchers have worked on this study on value-oriented education in India and its contribution to the field of education. Hence the investigator has decided to conduct the present study and On this background the problem stated as Concepts of Gita in the Present System of Education.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to recognize and define the Concepts of Gita in the Present System of Education to recognize factors responsible for strengthening Value-oriented Education through Bhagavad-Gita’s teachings and its impact on modern and progressive educational system.
Delimitation of the study
Keeping in view the limitation of time, resources and energy, the study is limited to one aspect of the subject which is Value-oriented Education based on Bhagavad Gita’s Teachings. The study is entirely based on the secondary data such as books, journals, periodicals, magazines and newspapers related to Bhagavad Gita.
Review of Literature
Every school of thought looks up to it and interprets in its own way. In times of crisis when the mind of student is tortured by doubt and is torn by the conflict of duties, it has turned all the more to the Gita for light and guidance. According to Aurobindo it is divided into three parts. The first six chapters of the text deal with Karma and its relation with Jnyana. Second six chapters deal with the theory of Bhakti and its relation with Karma and Jnyana. Remaining six chapters outlined the metaphysical statements regarding the cosmos, the manifest world and the supra cosmic truth. The concepts of brahmic consciousness, equality, the qualities of Bhakti, Vibhuti etc. are dealt across these three divisions. Aurobindo treats the first six chapters of the text as a single block of teaching with emphasis on Karma and Jnyana; the remaining twelve are closely connected blocks, from seven to twelve and twelve to eighteen which develop the rest of the doctrines. Whether man wills it or not, the universe is set in motion and is moving as if it were ‘yantrarooda’ hitched on to a machine. Second, the creatures in the cosmos were mere puppets in the hands of the supra cosmic Purushottama– the maker, sustainer and the Lord- and were themselves but a nimittamatra, a mere instrument in the evolution of the universe.
ma phalesu kadacana,
ma karmaphalahetur bhurma
Your authority extends only to the performance of Action; the fruit is never within your authority, do not be one who performs action with the motive that a particular fruit should be obtained, nor do you also insist on not-performing Action. But this surrendering everything by man is to be done not from the state of social station. He has first to rise himself up above from the ordinary state to the ethical state, a Sattvic, or the state of Brahmic consciousness and surrender everything.
This study is conducted mainly by applying analytical cum descriptive method for the research.
Analysis and Interpretation
The concept, meaning, theory and principle related to Value-oriented Education have been dealt with clarity and deep insight. Before we discuss the factors responsible for strengthening Value-oriented Education, essential for us to know the meaning of Value Education. The term ‘value education’ has different meanings to different thinkers in different context. Value education is the education that is associated with the transformation of an individual’s personality from one generation to another one. This is precisely why the learner seeks only to learn and study about the discovering own soul for achieving Values of Education. Gita’s teachings help in the development of the Values of Education. The Draft National Education Policy 2019 in Chapter-9 reflects on “Vision for Higher Education System”. There is a more problem of achieving value-oriented education by the individuals in our India today because each and every school or college or university suffers from such wisdom knowledge and devotion and it is because of this problem that our entire educational system is going aimlessly. This can be done by strengthening the pillars of professional education particularly the teacher education. Otherwise, the ignorance of Values of Education will result in exploitation, corruption, aggression, destruction, disaster, selfishness and hatred.
The three secrets of the Bhagavad-Gita
The secrets of Gita say that the scripture fundamentally deals with three primary teachings, which are called the three secrets. The first secret is about Duty (swadharmacharana). The second is hidden Self. The third secret is omnipresence of God, who pervades all and envelops all. These three secrets are known as guhya (secret), guhyatara (more secret) and guhyatma (most secret). Second, third, fourth, fifth and eighteenth chapters of the Gita deal with the first secret. The second, sixth, and thirteenth to eighteenth chapters deal with the second secret. The third, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth to eighteenth chapters deal with the third secret. It also attempted to provide values, the relevance to the modern management students.
VALUE 1: Absence of Self-Worship-fullness
VALUE 2: Absence of pretense /Self-Glorification
VALUE 3: Non-harmfulness/ injury
VALUE 4: Attitude of Accommodation
VALUE 5: Straight-forwardness
VALUE 6: Service to the Teacher
VALUE 7: Internal and External Cleanliness
VALUE 8: Steadfastness
VALUE 9: Mastery over the Mind
VALUE 10: State of Dispassion towards the Objects of Sense gratification.
VALUE 11: Absence of Self-egotism
VALUE 12: Repeated Review of Process of life-Death-Old Aging- Ailments-Pain
VALUE 13: Non-attachment
VALUE 14: Non-excessive Attachment towards son and wife
VALUE 15: Steadfastness of Mind
VALUE 16: Steady Devotion towards Righteousness and God
VALUE 17: Love for Spending Time in Solitary (Aspiring to live in a Solitary Place)
VALUE 18: Non-Inclination towards People and Company
VALUE 19: Keeping in View the Purpose of Knowledge Truth
VALUE 20: Stability in the Knowledge of Truth.
Gita and Life Skills in Education
Gita’s in real meaning of education is virtual knowledge, but question arise ‘what is virtual knowledge?’ True knowledge is that which teach us to see God in each soul. The student must shun three great vices – Kama, Krodh and Lobha in his personality. The Gita stands not only for renunciation of-action but also for the renunciation in-action.
Methods and Meaning of Education Life Skills
- Conversational method
- Question-answer method.
- Demonstration method.
- Contemporary method- rational analysis with proper analysis.
- Learning by doing.
Education is the process of cultivating completeness in human being. Life skills imply knowledge skill, ability and wisdom for karmic and sharing life. Gita is the synthesis of all Vedic ideas. Gita is known as an instruction module, the philosophy of life and psychology, it entails upon the discipline of the life and performance of one’s duty without attachment to the result in Sattvic way. Gita is not for some specific community, caste, creed, sex, country but it is a common asset of all human beings. Gita was created on the battlefield before the commencement of the war. Therefore, the battlefield represents our body where an unending battle is raging between good and evil forces. Gita is a synthesis of all Vedic ideas and wisdom and it was developed through the instructional process. Gita defines the purpose of work, not for its outcomes. Gita recommends the practice of Karma Yoga. Self-realization is the situation of Vidya that is education. Every human in this world is in need of salvation. Students in schools are in need of salvation from fear, terror and punishment from teachers and pressure from parents and as well as outsiders. Other people involved in different activities are in need of salvation from violence, conflict, pride, ego, tension, poverty, ignorance, etc. The sick are in need of salvation from diseases and older people from death. The word “Vidya” has been used in Gita to introduce the realm of education and knowledge. Mainly two types of knowledge have been discussed in Gita: logical knowledge and spiritual knowledge. The actions which are performed for the attainment of various types of comforts, luxury, prosperity or joy have been called Avidya and the actions performed for the attainment of the Brahma (self-actualization or soul realization) have been called Vidya.
In the 18th chapter of Gita having 78 Verses which tells about three types of personalities depending on their temperaments or Gunas.
Knowledge and Action
jnaanam jneyam parijnaataa trividhaa karmachodanaa karanam karma karteti trividhah karma sangrahah // 18.18 //
The impulse to action is made up of Knowledge (Jnanam), the Known (Jneyam) and the Knower (Parijnata).
jnaanam karma cha kartaa cha tridhaiva gunabhedatah prochyate gunasankhyaane yathaavacchrinu taanyapi // 18.19 //
Knowledge, action and the actor or the doer fall under three categories because of differences in the temperaments or Gunas in an individual at any given time.
sarvabhooteshu yenaikam bhaavamavyayameekshate avibhaktam vibhakteshu tajjnaanam viddhi saatwikam // 18.20 //
The knowledge by which one sees the one indestructible Reality in all beings, undivided in the divided – know that knowledge to be Sattvic.
prithaktwena tu yajjnaanam naanaabhaavaan prithagvidhaan vetti sarveshu bhooteshu tajjnaanam viddhi raajasam //18.21//
But that knowledge through which one sees multiplicity of beings in different creatures by reason of their separateness – know that knowledge to be Rajasic.
yattu kritsnavadekasmin kaarye saktamahaitukam atatwaarthavadalpam cha tattaamasamudaahritam // 18.22//
But the knowledge which is confined to one single effect as if it were the whole, without concern for the cause, without grasping the real and narrow – that is declared to be Tamasic.
VALUE-ORIENTED EDUCATION is too much vast and it is not easy to achieve a well balanced perspective of what is really happening and what is lacking in our research work. The study has been carried out with the recognizing, comprehending, examining critically, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating the Value education with respect to Bhagavad-Gita’s Teachings has great relevance to the present-day inside schools, colleges, and universities or outside and it can bring about a dynamic change in the educational system not only of the country, but also across the world.
Keeping in view in mind, the author concludes the ‘Value-oriented Education’ as- Education which helps to fulfill the potentialities of the individuals’ education through the three disciplines of action, knowledge and devotion which inculcates the values among individuals to lead to supreme bliss in order to gain physical, mental, moral, disciplinary, emotional, social, political, practical, cultural, educational, national, international, aesthetical, ethical, economical, religious, cognitive, affective, psychomotor, and so on. If the teachers enable to modify such values on the basis of three discipline of action, devotion and knowledge of Bhagavad-Gita’s Teachings, – this is “VALUE ORIENTED EDUCATION.”
- Government of India Indian Education Commission Report Government Printing Press, New Delhi, 1967.
- Government of India, MHRD, NPE Report Government Printing Press, New Delhi, 1986.
- C.E.R.T. National Curriculum Frame- Work for School Education, New Delhi. 2000.
- Nehru JL. The Discovery of India ISSN 0-14-303103-1 the Signet Press Calcutta, 1946.
- Swami Sivananda: Gita Divine Life Society Publication Rishikesh, UP, 2000.
- Sood and Kavita Value oriented education International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development Online ISSN: 2349-4182, Print ISSN: 2349-5979 2016; 3(3):275-277.
(This paper was presented by Magadi Rangnatha at the International Conference on Philosophy and Praxis of Yoga conducted by Indic Academy and Indica Yoga on February 15th and 16th 2020)
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